Wednesday, 31 July 2013

Discovering the world of scenario planning

Scenarios can't predict the future, so what's the point?

That's right-scenarios can't predict the future but they are a mechanism to imagine multiple futures and gives us an opportunity to learn from 'future history'.
It enable us to learn from the future rather than use our past to predict an outcome. The opportunity to explore future environments and how they may impact on us enables us to be free from the constraints of our knowing. It gives us the opportunity to design a history of the future to inform our present actions. Scenario planning enables us to challenge the robustness of our futures. Scenario planning enables us to identify the strategic implications of our imagined futures. By identify a number of potential futures we can then evaluate our strategies across all of those and begin to see those strategies that will address a number of imagined futures. It gives us the confidence to look at what actions we must take now to respond to these multiple scenarios.
The point is that the use of scenarios supplements traditional planning processes. It provides us with an opportunity to explore multiple futures in way that enables us to relate to each other in a different way.
It gives us a rich range of possibility. Who would not want that?

Adam Kahane at Ci2012 - "Transformative Scenario Planning"

Monday, 29 July 2013

Provisional Essay Plan-review of change model

What is my goal for writing this essay? My goal for writing this essay is to understand how the implementation of a kaitiakitanga framework can be strengthened through the adoption of Creative Commons. I will need to consider the impact of this policy framework in terms of the multiple ecologies within the arena of change.

What information do I need to include? I need to include the change model(s) I will be referencing and their links to my context. I would like to include:

-an ecological framework (the arena of change)
-a Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) source
-a Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) source
-a Learning/ Adoption Trajectory (LAT) source
-a source based around Roger's diffusion of innovation theory

I will also include information around indigenous knowledge in a digital context, principles of  kaitiakitanga, and Creative Commons/ OER.

How will the information be organised?

Introduce the principles of kaitiakitanga and Creative Commons.
Explain why the adoption of Creative Commons is important within a guardianship framework and how this will influence the school:
1. at a policy level-promotion and protection of knowledge
2. at a classroom level-the 4 r's of openess (Wiley, 2009)-impacts in terms of practice
Link this to the Arena of change - Ecological perspective NZGOAL, Creative Commons Aotearoa, Policy development.

Description of the change model(s)
-LAT-how it applies to the implementation of kaitiakitanga
-CBAM-how it can be used to support the change process

Review of the Implications
-LAT review including limitations and possible adaptations
-CBAM review including limitations and possible adaptations

Summary of findings, recommendations

Sunday, 28 July 2013

annotated bibliography 4

Schroff, R.H., Deneen, C.C., & Ng, E.M.W. (2011). Analysis of the technology acceptance model in examining students' behavioural intention to use an e-portfolio system. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(4), 600-618.
Description: The paper analyses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in terms of students' use of an electronic portfolio system in the specific framework of their course. The authors developed a usage questionaire based on existing TAM instruments and modified where appropriate. The responses to the survey were in terms of perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), attitudes towards usage (ATU) and behavioural intention to use (BIU). The study showed that students' perceived ease of use (PEOU) had a significant impact on attitude towards use (ATU). The perception aorund ease of use impacted strongly on perceived usefulness (PU). The results suggest that the TAM is a relaible theoretical model.
Evaluation: The paper is credible in its findings and confirms the results of other studies. The link between perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU) is strong,  and will ultimately impact on the use of technologies. This is an important consideration when looking at the investment in and introduction of new technologies into an environment. It is also important information for designers to consider when they are looking at user interfaces. The issues Microsoft is currently encountering with Windows 8 is a good example of this.

Sherry, L., &  Gibson, D. (2002).The path to teacher leadership in educational technology. Comptemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 2(2), 178-203.

Description: The paper looks at existing research on adoption models and highlights two key limitations: firstly the assumption an education system is not a single social system, but is in fact multiple systems within systems, and secondly traditional models ignore external factors that impact on systems with a school, such as governental initiatives and worldwide connectivity. The paper then goes on to discuss the Learning/ Adoption Trajectory (LAT) model. This model puts the teacher at the centre of the system and identifies four stages through which the teachers when they learn to use a new technology. These are: a) teacher as learner, b) teacher as adopter, c) teacher as co-learner, and d) teacher as reaffirmer or rejecter. A fifth dimension has been added to the model with e) teacher as leader.
Evaluation: The paper presents a number of case studies that show how this theory translates into practice when adopting new technologies. The LAT is an effective model as it keeps the teacher at the centre of the process, but also takes into account the external factors that impact the multiple ecologies. I do like the simplicity of this model, and its focus on the learner, in this case being the teacher.

Saturday, 27 July 2013

Learning Reflection One

Tena koutou katoa

I welcome the opportunity to refine my reflection processes, but by that same token I am hesitant to commit my thinking over the last three weeks to my blog. When I look at the journey I have travelled since 8th July there is a very strong C theme: change, copyright and Creative Commons. And tattooing. But that's a T and I'll come to that later.

There has been a distinct shift in what I imagined I was signing up for and where my research has taken me. Not that this is a bad place to be, but I had entered this course to look at a technology we were wanting to implement in the school, then perhaps look at a case study around this. Nice and safe, and not really requiring much of me. I am certainly in a different place by the end of week 3.

I haven't been engaged in distance learning for about a decade, so was impressed by the interface for the course. I did initially have difficulty remembering the pathways I needed to find the information for the first week of the course, although found those quite quickly. I did discover near the end of the first week that I had missed the page with the indicative readings and had a mild anxiety attack. Just mild.

I felt identifying an area of research within the first few days challenging, as I still felt I did not have an overview of the course and where it was going. This created a level of dis-ease for me, particularly when looking at what was required from me for the second assignment. I think the way Niki describes how innovations disrupt existing ecologies. My ecology was certainly disrupted!
My area of personal interest is around the impact of digital technologies on the notion of ownership of indigenous knowledge. This is particularly important for us as a school as our population is 100% Maori/ Pasefika. From my initial scope I found there was little available research, and most of this had been undertaken in Australia or Canada. I could not locate much local research. A local principal has the same area of interest and directed me to some foundation readings that have clarified what I am asking as I wasn't clear about that until midway through last week.

Board elections occurred recently, and I have the opportunity to work with the first board that I have shaped over the last two and a half years, and to look forward to where we are going over the next three year term.

Now the teaching and learning practices have been aligned to current pedagogy it is now time to step up from the micro to the macro level and identify what we need to look like and where we are going as a school. Our visioning process in 2011 generated our vision- Transforming Communities. Due to the nature of our community there is a belief that our children will be the agents of change in their homes, and that through their learning they will re-engage the adults around them in the process of learning. Many of our families have lived in the area for three generations, and many have had negative experiences of schooling. The regeneration of our community starts with our kids.

To achieve this we need to develop a responsive policy framework, and to do this we are beginning to consider the principles of the Treaty and how they look for us in our setting. Kaitiakitanga (guardianship) is a key principle of this process, and our challenge is how to promote and protect the indigenous knowledge located in our community?

This is where this research process gained traction. The change in our setting will be the introduction of a  kaitiakitanga framework and how Creative Commons can be used to protect and promote indigenous knowledge.
The research will also look at whether Creative Commons could be adapted to respond to the needs of our community.

I must say though that through this process I had the urge to scrap this completely and go back to looking at something a little bit familiar like how social media can be used to facilitate home/ school partnership. But I didn't.

And this is where the tattooing comes into play. I had booked two days of tattoo work months ago for the second week of the break. I had a three day residential in the first and our PLD for our teaching team this week, so a very small window was available. I downloaded over thirty readings to cover over two eight hour days. Just sitting.

My tattooist has a Masters of Fine Arts, so we began talking about his thesis, and the ownership of indigenous knowledge. We also talked about the development of archiving processes, and research methodology. By the morning of day two we were engaged in a critique of copyright and IP law. So I would like to say thanks Stan for giving me some clarity around my own thinking. I also wonder what CC attributes you would put on the beautiful tattoo work you have done on me.

Sometimes support comes from the most unlikely of places.

Annotated Bibliography 3

Davis, N.E.(2010). Global interdisciplinary research into the diffusion of information technology innovations in education. Researching IT in education: theory, practice and future directions, 142-149. 

Description: This chapter reviews the diffusion of information technology innovations through an ecological perspective. The author notes that reviews of interdisciplinary literature on the diffusion of innovations focuses on innovation primarily from the perspective of those wanting the innovation adopted. The ecology of the classroom is described and examples of the impact of the introduction of a new technology are discussed as examples. The chapter concludes that the ecological perspective is a good fit for describing the diffusion of information technologies. It is also identifies that the process of diffusion is complex, because it impacts on and is impacted by multiple ecologies. Knowledge of the process of diffusion is important as this may speed up or slow down the process of diffusion.
Evaluation: This chapter is from a credible source references a number of the and effectively reviews the key diffusion theories, particularly in an educational context. A pertinent point for me was the recommendation that published research is reviewed and critiqued from an ecological perspective. The consideration of multiple ecologies and how they work in facilitating (and in some cases frustrating) the diffusion of technologies is also a consideration for my research. 

Robinson, L.(2009). A summary of diffusion of innovations. Retrieved July 19, 2013.

Description: In this article the author attempts to explain how innovations are adopted. the author describes an innovation as an idea, a behaviour, or an object that is perceived as new by its audience. He identifies three insights into the diffusion of innovation: i) the qualities that make an innovation spread quickly, ii) the importance of peer-peer conversations and networks, and iii) understanding the needs of the different user segments. The five qualities of an innovation that can advance this process are: relative advantage, compatibility, ease of use, trialability and observable results. The article also identifies the different levels of adoption of an innovation and strategies to engage the more risk aversive in the process.
Evaluation: This article provides a good overview of the literature around the diffusion of innovations and enabled me to understand the process is a simplistic way. If there is an advantage to the user in adopting an innovation, the more likely the innovation will be adopted. Strategies to engage more reluctant users in the adoption of an innovation was very useful this term at school as we look to adopt a new technology school-wide.

Friday, 26 July 2013


Tena koutou, Fa'atalofa atu, Malo e lelei, Fakalofa Lehi atu, Taloha ni

My name is Wayne MacGillivray and I am the principal of Mayfield School in Otara, a low socio-economic suburb in South Auckland, New Zealand. I am a father of five and am studying towards my Masters of Education. I am enjoying the balancing act between leading a school, raising a family, and my new learning. I have been at my school for two and a half years and we are moving into our second cycle of transformation-that being at a policy level. Our community is 100% Maori/ Pasefika, and our challenge is developing a policy framework that is responsive to our needs.

Information technologies are seen as an integral part of this transformation.

I look forward to learning with you.

Naku noa na


Wednesday, 24 July 2013

Annotated bibliography

Kamira, R. (2003). Te Mata o te Tai - the edge of the tide: rising capacity in information technology of Maori in Aotearoa-New Zealand.. The Electronic Library, 21, 465-475.

Description: This paper argues that it is possible to extract lessons in the information technology era from our colonial past. One key understanding developed is how information technologies can impact on the definition of knowledge in Aotearoa/ New Zealand. The paper reviews the predictions and impacts of early information technology on Maori and provide a chronological summary of IT developments and events in a global context and within a Maori context before establishing whether IT can have positive long term effects on the socio-economic status of indigenous people.

Evaluation: This paper provides a useful overview of the historical introduction of technologies and their impact. The writer draws heavily on the historical introduction of technologies and their use as tools of colonisation. Although the author cites numerous examples to support this, there is a developing perspective that counters this. Writers like Haami (2007) view these manuscripts as a mechanism to  safeguard and share indigenous knowledge. The paper gives a useful overview of Maori history in Aotearoa, and identifies policies that have further alienated Maori from traditional knowledge, but does not substantiate a case for the negative or positive socio-economic impacts on Maori through the introduction of IT.

Rogers, E.M. (2003). Attributes of innovations and their rates of adoption. In Diffusion of Innovations(pp.204-251). New York: Free Press.

Description: This chapter outlines in detail the innovation-diffusion process and proposes the five attributes of innovation and how these attributes (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability) reduces the uncertainty about the innovation. The attributes are  described in depth and numerous examples of innovations are provided.

Evaluation: This chapter has been helpful in shaping my research topic has enabled me to look more closely at the change dimension of my topic and gives me a lens through which to examine successful adoption of my proposed innovation. Rogers argues that innovations that offer more relative advantage, compatibility, simplicity, trialability and observability will lead to more rapid adoption. In terms of the notion of guardianship through the adoption of Creative Commons this is particularly pertinent. Any framework developed for implementation would need to make strong links between the advantage that Creative Commons can offer and existing school practices around IP and copyright.

Monday, 22 July 2013

Arena of Change

My central topic of research is around how Creative Commons can support the development of policies and protocol to protect and promote indigenous knowledge. This topic has required a lot of reflection and research to reach its current iteration. My initial question around how digital technology impacts on the notion of 'ownership' of cultural and indigenous knowledge was too broad. The focus I would now like to look at is at a policy level to ensure that the use of digital technologies (whatever they may be) are used within protocols designed to protect and promote indigenous knowledge.

In our Aotearoa/ New Zealand context my definitions of information technology and knowledge were the first things to be challenged. Kamira (2002) asserts that from a Maori perspective information technology need not be limited to the conventional academic or industrial definitions. Potentially any means of storing, analysing and desseminating information can be included-even our minds (Kamira 2002, p.4).

Matauranga and hinengaro offer broader definitions on knowledge. Matauranga refers to education and intuitive intelligence, and is linked to the divine. Hinengaro is the mind, the thinking, knowing, perceiving, remembering, recognising, feeling, abstracting, generalising, sensing, responding and reacting (Pere 1991, p.32).  These broader definitions make it clear that the concepts of information technology are within the reach of Maori, but also that our commonly accepted definitions are less complex than some indigenous defintions.

The MindMap I show below is simplistic, but shows at a local, national and global level there is an interplay that supports the outcome to promote and protect indigenous knowledge through policy development at a school level. This in itself will influence classroom practices around the access and use of cultural and indigenous knowledge.

The growing area of interest for me is the Creative Commons, a reaction to traditional copyright and IP laws (Garcelon 2009).  In terms of indigenous knowledge the concept of individual ownership is a foreign one. The notion of guardianship (kaitiakitanga) is a more useful way to look at knowledge protection and promotion. Tiaki is to look after or guard and is a responsibility or an obligation rather than a right due to ownership (Kamira 2009 p.5).  The notion of guardianship will also guide my research.

I welcome your reflections and feedback.

Wednesday, 17 July 2013

The arena of change

I was at an address by the Minister of Education yesterday and was interested around her comments regarding the future of schooling. Her primary message was a positve one-based on PISA evidence countries that believe students can succeed are the ones that find the mechanisms to achieve this. Her other message heartened me in my lead role-the Minister is committed to de-cluttering the relationship between schools and the Ministry. If the information requested from schools no longer serves a function it should not be requested. Her commitment to schools is to developing instructional leaders, as the BES will show, this is one of the most effective ways to shift achievement. I welcome this shift in the collective thinking of the Ministry, but am guessing at this stage it may just be the Minister that has this desire!
So in terms of the Arena of Change the bureaucratic actions that stifle innovation at a localised level may disappear as the Ministry attempts to move its provision closer to the interface with the learner. The rollout of the Network for Learning (N4L) may also be a way to achieve this. I welcome this move.

Monday, 15 July 2013


It now feels like I am seeing light in terms of accessing some literature around IP and traditional knowledge. I think the inquiry may change to include the policies and protocols we need in place to protect and promote indigenous knowledge in a school context. 
I am at a three day residential from tomorrow, so I look forward to catching up on discussions when I return.

Sunday, 14 July 2013

Annotated Bibliographies

Brown, D., & Sullivan, R. (2007). Te Ahu Hiko: digital cultural heritage and indigenous objects, people, and environments. Theorizing Digital Cultural Heritage, A Critical Discourse, 77-92.

Description: This chapter examines the possible heritage applications of three-dimensional augmented and virtual reality to New Zealand Maori treasures, bodies and landscapes, examining the potential benefits and problems this technology presents for institutions and indigenous people. It draws experience from bicultural pilot projects involving the collaboration of museum professionals, curators, Maori participants, software and hardware industries, and academics.
Evaluation: This article was useful as it enabled me to see how the digitising of Maori treasures allows the reconnection of indigenous people to these taonga. It is possible to achieve this through the ability to virtually 'return' items dispersed across the globe to museums and private collections. It also enables in a virtual way the possibility to make comparisons between objects in diverse physical locations provides opportunities to make connections in a way that was not possible even a decade ago. It highlights the issue that it may not be possible for the inherent cultural properties of objects, people and places to be retained when digitised. The article provided a balanced perspective of the benefits and potential issues caused by the use of these technologies.

Burri, M. (2010). Digital technologies and traditional cultural expressions: a positive look at a difficult relationship. International Journal of Cultural Property, 17 (01), 33-63.

Description: This article examines the validity of the claim that digital technologies are damaging traditional cultural expressions in technical and socio-cultural contexts. On the technical side it is related to the ability of digital media to allow instantaneous access to information without real location constraints, lightening fast data transport and reproduction without any loss of quality. In a socio-cultural context it is related to the relationship between digital technologies and the spread of globalisation. It identifies ways in which digital technologies may be beneficial to traditional cultural knowledge. It illustrates that some digital technologies can be used to protect and enhance traditional cultural expressions. It also identifies how the Internet and World Wide Web have had a profound impact on the ways cultural content is created, disseminated, accessed and consumed.
Evaluation: The article provides a balanced presentation of the arguments around the validity of the claim that digital technologies are damaging to traditional cultural expressions. It identifies clearly that any discussion around traditional cultural expressions cannot take place in a parallel space devoid of a digitally connected world. Rather the issue becomes how can digital technologies be used to protect and promote the formation, creation and expression of traditional cultural responses. It highlights through the reduced economic threshold for entry and the increased dynamics and diversity of content that the empowerment of users and communities can enhance traditional cultural expressions. It also talks in concrete terms about the ability to tailor digital tools to provide the distinctions of secret, sacred and open knowledge. The final part of the article regarding the tailoring of digital tools is of particular interest to me in terms of the protection of indigenous knowledge.

Research Topic

Tena Koutou, Fa'atalofa atu, Malo e lelei, Fakalofa lehi atu, Kia Orana, Taloha Ni, Greetings

For my research topic I would like to look at how digital technology impacts on the notion of 'ownership' of cultural and indigenous knowledge. I would like to focus on this issues of storage and access of information in my research. The increased use of cloud-based solutions and remote storage is of interest to me.
From my initial research it seems that existing intellectual property law is inadequate to cover the use of knowledge in digital spaces, as it appears most of this legislation applies to physical rather than virtual environments. This may become an increasing focus as this topic is refined.

I choose this topic because I have seen in decile 1-3 schools a focus on increasing the engagement of Maori/ Pasefika communities with digital technologies and the concept of the global learning community. There has from what I can see at the moment been very little research around the implications of this on the use and transmission of traditional and specialised knowledge. The notion of access for all that we promote is in direct contrast to traditional views around the transmission of specialised knowledge. The whare wananga is a good example of this-specialised knowledge whether around geneology, carving or medicine was only shared with an elite.

From my initial scope of the literature there appears to be quite a bit of work done around the implications of this for libraries and museums in terms of storage and access. There has been some research done in a local context concerning the transfer of inherent and essential qualities of an object, person or environment and whether their meaning and significance are transferred to the virtual form. Paul Tapsell identified many interrelated qualities that apply: mana, tapu, korero, karakia, whakapapa,  wairua, mauri, ihi, wehi, and wana, none of which are visual qualities. The integrity of information in regard to these qualities is important to consider.

One of the major questions appear to be around the appropriateness of IP legislation in a virtual space. The other question seems to be around the transfer of protocols from a physical to a digital space. The other question is a pivotal one-that being around the appropriateness of new technologies being applied to traditional knowledge in the first place.

The topic has implications at a local, national and global level. The localised use of knowledge to build and maintain specific community links in a remote manner is an area of particular interest to me at a micro level. The macro implications of IP law is also an important consideration. In our context the development and preservation of traditional Maori knowledge is also impacted by this.

I think this topic has a high level of currency. The ability with the advent of social networking tools and the accessibility to information and images through the use of smart technologies blurs the traditional parameters around use and prohibition related to indigenous knowledge.

I welcome your guys feedback on this.

For the teachers out there try to have a break :)

Tuesday, 9 July 2013

Capturing Indigenous knowledge in a 21st century learning environment

As I begin to think about what my research topic will be I come back to my interest in intellectual property and indigenous knowledge in a digital environment. How do cultures that are primarily oral take old knowledge and preserve it for future generations. This group of students may show one way of doing this:

Monday, 8 July 2013


Watching our league team hit their straps at the regional tournament reminded of the value of collaboration. The boys had a shared vision, and each member of the team had a specific role in achieving also reminded me how much I love watching kids play league!

                                   Future NRL legends Avondale Racecourse taken by me!

Mayfield Champs!


Champ of Champs-Mayfield cutting it up

B Logging-the first steps

Kia Ora tatou
Ko Wayne toku ingoa
No Tamaki Makaurau ahau
He Kotimana au
Kei Mayfield Primary School ahau e mahi ana
He Tumuaki ahau

Hi everyone my name is Wayne MacGillivray and I am the Principal of Mayfield Primary School in the heart of South Auckland-Otara. We have produced over the years the Mayor of Auckland, Len Brown and league legends Dean Bell, Ruben Wiki and Manu Vatuvei.

For me blogs have been occasional tools driven by a specific purpose. What I want to achieve by maintaining a blog for this course is seeing the full potential this tool has for our learning community- adults and students alike.

The setup was not difficult, but I will need to work on just how I can optimise the blog. I have become much more conscious of how the interface of the blogs I visit are set up.

We have our league Champ of Champs today and my goal is to find an app that I can use my phone to capture the day on.

See you again in cyberspace soon.